Written by Xinjiang Conservation Fund based in Beijing. Based on reviews of development of the urban water sector since 1949, data analysis and interpretation of 500 household surveys in five cities in China, this report aims at answering the following questions: -What are the reasons for China‚Äôs urban water privatization? -What is the essence of China‚Äôs marketization reform of public water? What are the impacts generated by this process? -What are the preconditions for a successful and human-oriented urban public water reform?